Resampling

We can resample by either:

  • upsampling (moving data to a higher frequency)
  • downsampling (moving data to a lower frequency)
  • combinations of these e.g. first upsample and then downsample

Downsampling to a lower frequency

Polars views downsampling as a special case of the groupby operation and you can do this with groupby_dynamic and groupby_rolling - see the temporal groupby page for examples.

Upsampling to a higher frequency

Let's go through an example where we generate data at 30 minute intervals:

from datetime import datetime

import polars as pl

df = pl.DataFrame(
    {
        "time": pl.date_range(low=datetime(2021, 12, 16), high=datetime(2021, 12, 16, 3), interval="30m"),
        "groups": ["a", "a", "a", "b", "b", "a", "a"],
        "values": [1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0, 6.0, 7.0],
    }
print(df)
shape: (7, 3)
┌─────────────────────┬────────┬────────┐
│ time                ┆ groups ┆ values │
│ ---                 ┆ ---    ┆ ---    │
│ datetime[μs]        ┆ str    ┆ f64    │
╞═════════════════════╪════════╪════════╡
│ 2021-12-16 00:00:00 ┆ a      ┆ 1.0    │
├╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌┼╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌┼╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌┤
│ 2021-12-16 00:30:00 ┆ a      ┆ 2.0    │
├╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌┼╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌┼╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌┤
│ 2021-12-16 01:00:00 ┆ a      ┆ 3.0    │
├╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌┼╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌┼╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌┤
│ 2021-12-16 01:30:00 ┆ b      ┆ 4.0    │
├╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌┼╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌┼╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌┤
│ 2021-12-16 02:00:00 ┆ b      ┆ 5.0    │
├╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌┼╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌┼╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌┤
│ 2021-12-16 02:30:00 ┆ a      ┆ 6.0    │
├╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌┼╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌┼╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌┤
│ 2021-12-16 03:00:00 ┆ a      ┆ 7.0    │
└─────────────────────┴────────┴────────┘

Upsampling can be done by defining the new sampling interval. By upsampling we are adding in extra rows where we do not have data. As such upsampling by itself gives a DataFrame with nulls. These nulls can then be filled with a fill strategy or interpolation.

Upsampling strategies

In this example we upsample from the original 30 minutes to 15 minutes and then use a forward strategy to replace the nulls with the previous non-null value:

out1 = df.upsample("time", "15m").fill_null("forward")
print(out1)
shape: (13, 3)
┌─────────────────────┬─────────┬────────┐
│ time                ┆ groups  ┆ values │
│ ---                 ┆ ---     ┆ ---    │
│ datetime[μs]        ┆ str     ┆ f64    │
╞═════════════════════╪═════════╪════════╡
│ 2021-12-16 00:00:00 ┆ a       ┆ 1.0    │
├╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌┼╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌┼╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌┤
│ 2021-12-16 00:15:00 ┆ forward ┆ null   │
├╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌┼╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌┼╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌┤
│ 2021-12-16 00:30:00 ┆ a       ┆ 2.0    │
├╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌┼╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌┼╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌┤
│ 2021-12-16 00:45:00 ┆ forward ┆ null   │
├╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌┼╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌┼╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌┤
│ ...                 ┆ ...     ┆ ...    │
├╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌┼╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌┼╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌┤
│ 2021-12-16 02:15:00 ┆ forward ┆ null   │
├╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌┼╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌┼╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌┤
│ 2021-12-16 02:30:00 ┆ a       ┆ 6.0    │
├╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌┼╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌┼╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌┤
│ 2021-12-16 02:45:00 ┆ forward ┆ null   │
├╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌┼╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌┼╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌┤
│ 2021-12-16 03:00:00 ┆ a       ┆ 7.0    │
└─────────────────────┴─────────┴────────┘

In this example we instead fill the nulls by linear interpolation:

out2 = df.upsample("time", "15m").interpolate().fill_null("forward")
print(out2)
shape: (13, 3)
┌─────────────────────┬─────────┬────────┐
│ time                ┆ groups  ┆ values │
│ ---                 ┆ ---     ┆ ---    │
│ datetime[μs]        ┆ str     ┆ f64    │
╞═════════════════════╪═════════╪════════╡
│ 2021-12-16 00:00:00 ┆ a       ┆ 1.0    │
├╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌┼╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌┼╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌┤
│ 2021-12-16 00:15:00 ┆ forward ┆ 1.5    │
├╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌┼╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌┼╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌┤
│ 2021-12-16 00:30:00 ┆ a       ┆ 2.0    │
├╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌┼╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌┼╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌┤
│ 2021-12-16 00:45:00 ┆ forward ┆ 2.5    │
├╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌┼╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌┼╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌┤
│ ...                 ┆ ...     ┆ ...    │
├╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌┼╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌┼╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌┤
│ 2021-12-16 02:15:00 ┆ forward ┆ 5.5    │
├╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌┼╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌┼╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌┤
│ 2021-12-16 02:30:00 ┆ a       ┆ 6.0    │
├╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌┼╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌┼╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌┤
│ 2021-12-16 02:45:00 ┆ forward ┆ 6.5    │
├╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌┼╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌┼╌╌╌╌╌╌╌╌┤
│ 2021-12-16 03:00:00 ┆ a       ┆ 7.0    │
└─────────────────────┴─────────┴────────┘